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Dal suolo arido al grande caldo

I dati dell’estate 2012 mostrano come esista un intreccio fra la scarsità di precipitazione e il ripetersi di ondate di calore, ma anche una sorta di reazione a catena che porta l’atmosfera in condizioni sempre meno favorevoli ai temporali estivi. Se questo comportamento dovesse proseguire, come peraltro indicato negli scenari di cambiamento climatico per la zona Mediterranea, gli impatti sull’agricoltura in pianura padana potrebbero essere pesanti.

Come anticipato alla fine del precedente post, parallelamente all’aumento della temperature massime estive, negli ultimi anni abbiamo assistito ad un progressivo declino dell’umidità del suolo, soprattutto nei terreni della pianura padana. Questo risulta chiaro dall’analisi dei dati dei sensori installati nel terreno che nell’estate 2012 hanno registrato valori inconsueti in Emilia Romagna. Per valutare a titolo esemplificativo il rapporto fra umidità del suolo e temperatura dell’aria abbiamo scelto la stazione meteorologica di  S.P. Capofiume (BO), appartenente ad ARPA-SIMC, che essendo situata in aperta campagna e libera da influenza di edifici, ben rappresenta le condizione tipiche della pianura Padana centrale. Inoltre, essendo spesso luogo di campagne di misura e di radiosondaggio, possiede anche una ricca serie di sensori anche nel terreno. Nel grafico di figura 1 viene mostrato per esempio l’andamento dell’umidità del suolo negli ultimi 12 anni, simulato su questa stazione, con il modello di bilancio idrico CRITERIA. Si nota come dal 2011 l’umidità nei primi due metri di terreno sia in continua decrescita a fronte delle scarse precipitazioni, e come questa stia raggiungendo livelli minimi, peggiori anche delle recente e severa siccità del 2007. Continue Reading »

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Un’altra estate rovente e siccitosa sull’Emilia-Romagna

Dopo l’estate del 2003, attribuita all’eccezionale persistenza di un promontorio anticiclonico sul Mediterraneo, siamo oggi di nuovo alle prese con condizioni simili e del tutto anomale rispetto al clima del passato.

Si sa in Italia d’estate fa caldo, ma l’estate 2012 è, meteorologicamente parlando, speciale. Abbiamo assistito al susseguirsi di forti ondate di caldo intervallate da periodi relativamente più freschi  ma con temperature massime quasi sempre superiori alla media climatologica. E’ ormai da qualche anno che le ondate di caldo sulla nostra regione, e sul Fig. 1Nord-Italia, si stanno intensificando. Come si può vedere dalla figura 1, è evidente un progressivo aumento delle temperature estive sull’Emilia-Romagna ad iniziare dagli anni 1980, con una decisa accelerazione dalla metà degli anni 90’.

Figura 1: Anomalia della media delle temperature massime estive (Giugno, Luglio, Agosto) rispetto alla climatologia di riferimento 1961-1990

 

 

 

 

 

Quest’anno però abbiamo assistito ad un’ulteriore impennata, con temperature in alcune zone  comparabili con quelle del 2003 (figura 2).

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